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traceyg and myself deceided to post this topic to help the young hunters......after traceys recent post about this section, it seems most youngsters were afraid to ask for basic info....so we are going to compile a glossary and frequently asked questions........this is the start of it and mainly covers shooting for now....but it will be added too over the next few months, we will have links, laws and how too sections aswell, if there is anything you dont understand or anything you think should be added please put a post up in the young hunters section titled "FAQ'S".










You've just got yourself a new rifle scope, fitted it and let me guess...for some reason your shots are landing nowhere near the crosshairs?

Sadly there's more to rifle scope sharp shooting than just plonking the scope on the rifle and forever after shooting like an SAS sniper! You have to "zero" it.

Think about it. It's like a bike wheel. If you tighten the bolts wrong, too much on one side for example, it spins wrong and rubs the brake pads. It's the same with a Rifle scope. If it's not set up correctly it will be offline and even at short air rifle, airsoft and paintball ranges this is going to throw your accuracy right off. At longer ranges you'll miss by a mile (well figuratively anyway!)


What Does "Zero a scope" mean?


Zeroing a sight or scope means getting the crosshair in position so that when you shoot. Ground zero if you like. The point of impact.There's a lot of discussion amongst shooters on the best way to zero a scope or sight. This is my take on things.

How to Zero a Rifle Scope


First of all you need to set a firm foundation by fitting the scope mounts well.


1. Put the scope mounts on the rifle first with the top brackets removed.


2. Tighten them into place using 1/2 turns at the time so that they sit solid and level as best as is possible, i.e., the downward pressure is as equal as possible. At this stage don't tighten them fully as you might want to slide them up and down a little.


3. Now take scope and place it on top of the open rifle mounts.

Make sure the windage and elevation turrets are one up and one to the right (these are the "turrets" on the sight. You use them later to make micro adjustments and in the field adjustments for wind)


4. Then put the top mount brackets on and tighten - Again use partial turns to tighten up.

Don't tighten fully at this stage, you may yet need to adjust a little.

Zero the scope


1. Lie in your normal shooting position and check that you can see through the scope well...

The distance between your eye and the rear scope lens is called Eye Relief.

Unlike cartoons you do not use a scope by pressing your eye up against the scope lens!


2. Once comfortable complete the screwing down of all mounts so that your set up is solid -

take care at this stage to keep the final turns partial and one by one to ensure pressure is equal.

Now it's time to zero the scope for shooting:


1. Load the rifle


2. Adopt your standard prone/lie down shooting position.

Prone is the best way as if you test shoot from standing or kneeling positions you waver more and it's harder to do a "true test".


3. Put some sort of target in place at say 20 yards - or whatever you think your "standard" range will be.


4. Using cross hair on target centre - Take 2-3 shots - Where do do they fall in relation to where you want them to? Right, left, up, down - dead on (lucky you!)


· 2-3 shots is best as it will average out shooter inaccuracy and give you a more "significant" feel for how far or close you are from true zero.

Now it's time to use the windage and elevation turrets to get it zeroed dead on. These are the 2 turrets on the top and right side of the scope.


1. Models vary, you'll probably screw a cap off and expose either a coin twist or finger knurled type of dial.


2. The top turret adjusts up and down. The right one left and right.


3. If you have your scopes instructions they should have a table with figures to tell you what each click adjustment means in terms of cross hair movement at "x" distance, e.g., 1/8 inch at 100 metres.

Use single click turns and each time take a new shot to gauge where the shot now falls - the dials basically adjust the cross hair position up-down and left-right.

It's trial and error basically but with testing you'll get to where you need to be and be able to trust that your shots will go where it says they will! This may take some time and a lot of shots. Be patient!


Cheers Sean3513



Rifle Scopes Glossary of Terms


Descriptions of rifle scopes can be a little confusing at times, especially if you're new to scopes and shooting.

What does 4x20 mean?

4 - The first number means the magnification. In this example it is 4x normal eyesight.

20 - Means the diameter of the viewing lens (not the eyepiece) in millimetres.

The tech term for this is "Objective Lens Size"

4x20 - Therefore is 4x magnification seen through a 20mm wide view lens.

And what about 3-9x40 then?

This means the scope has variable "zoom" capability.

In this case it ranges between 3 and 9x magnification though a 40mm wide view lens (Objective lens)

Unless otherwise stated the numbers are whole numbers, so on a 3-9x there will be a 3, 4, 5, 6 ,7, 8 and 9x position but not fractions or some sort of granular 3.75x type of thing.

The more technical terms -

Exit Pupil: The size of the column of light that leaves the eyepiece of a scope.

The larger the exit pupil, the brighter the image.

To determine the size, divide the objective lens diameter by the power (a 4x40 model has an exit pupil of 10mm).

This is why big mag scopes tend to have big lenses e.g., 8x56 and why you don't get 3-9x20s cos they'd be rubbish



Eye Relief:

The distance a scope can be held away from the eye and still present the full field of view.


Unlike cartoons you don't have the eyepiece pressed up against your eye and get a black eye from recoil!

Field of View (F.O.V.): The side-to-side measurement of the circular viewing field or subject area.


It is defined by the width in feet or meters of the area visible at 100 yards or meters.

A wide field of view makes it easier to spot game and track moving targets.

Generally, the higher the magnification, the narrower the field of view.

Which is why variable magnification scopes are so handy. Spot the target at low mag and. Lock on and zoom in.

Windage & Elevation - The 2 turrets mid way down the scope body that are a key part of zeroing a scope.


Windage - The one on the right.

· As the name suggests is to do with wind.

· It adjusts the crosshair minutely left and right.

· And for in the field adjustments for wind strength where, for example a high crosswind will make long range shots veer slighty.

Elevation - The top on. Up and down basically.

· Again critical for getting zero and in the field where a strong head or tail wind effects a pellets lateral trajectory

An experienced shooter will use these turrets to make a situational zero adjustments. If you're not experienced don't worry. Just be aware and experiment as that's how you become experienced!


· A condition that occurs when the image of the target is not focused precisely on the reticule plane.

· Parallax is visible as an apparent movement between the reticule and the target when the shooter moves his head or, in extreme cases, as an out-of-focus image.

· Some scopes, higher prices ones typically, have parallax correction built in so that this focus problem does not occur.















Glossary of terms



Accuracy General term, usually referring to the inherent ability of a rifle to consistently group all its shots close together on a target at a given distance under perfect conditions. It takes no account of human error, wind conditions, etc. Also applied to a given load, brand of pellets, etc., or to a combination of rifle and pellet. In shooting, the ability of the shooter and his rifle to deliver precision fire on a desired target. Accuracy can easily be measured as the ability to group all shots close to a desired impact point. The deviation from the desired impact point or the size of the group is a function of range. Accuracy is the product of uniformity.


Action The combination of the receiver or frame and breech bolt together with the other parts of the mechanism of a rifle that normally performs loading, feeding, locking, firing, unlocking, extracting, and ejection.

Adjustable Objective Fine focusing ring on the objective lens of a telescope that helps to eliminate parallax.



Automatic Safety A device on some rifles intended to return the safety to the "On" (safe) position when the action is opened, or finished firing.



Ballistic Coefficient A mathematical factor representing the ratio of the sectional density of a pellet to its coefficient of form. Simply put, BC expresses a pellets length ( relative to diameter ) and aerodynamic shape, thus indicating its ability to overcome air resistance in flight. The higher its BC factor, the better a pellet retains its velocity and energy, and the flatter its trajectory.

Ballistics The science that deals with the motion and flight characteristics of projectiles. It can be divided into three phases: 1) Internal ballistics 2) Exterior ballistics 3) Terminal ballistics. The main aspects of ballistics that concern the rifleman are pellet velocity, stability, kinetic energy, trajectory and penetration/wounding effect.


Barrel That part of a rifle through which a projectile or shot travels under the impetus of compressed air, or other like means. May be rifled or smooth-bore.

Barrel Band Metal band that secures the barrel to the fore-end of a full-length rifle stock, or in the case of some PCP rifles to the main air cylinder.




Barrel Time The interval between the time the pellet starts to leave its seat until it reaches the muzzle. This is significant in the case of a springer because is it linked to recoil time, which affects the point of impact.





Bipod A two-legged support attached to the fore-end of a rifle, used mainly for long range and/or accurate shooting.


Blue The chemical oxidation to colour ferrous metal parts various shades of blue or black.

Bolt Action A rifle in which the breech closure is: in line with the bore at all times; manually reciprocated to load, unload and cock; and is locked in place by breech bolt lugs engaging abutments usually in the receiver. There are two principle types of bolt actions, i.e., the turn bolt and the straight pull type.


Bore The interior of a barrel forward of the chamber.


Bore Diameter Internal diameter of a barrel measured from the tops of diametrically opposed lands, i.e. the smallest internal diameter. If the lands are not opposed, the diameter of a circle inscribed to touch the tops of the lands. It is the inside diameter of the barrel before the rifling is cut.

Bore Sighting A method of aligning a barrel on a target by aiming through the bore. May be part of the sight alignment procedure. When sighting in a scope tools like a collimator can be used.


Breech The chamber end of the barrel.




Butt (Pistols) Bottom part of the grip. (Rifles) Rear of shoulder end of stock, which rests against shooter’s shoulder.


Calibre. A term used to designate the specific pellet for which a rifle is chambered, also the approximate diameter of the circle formed by the tops of the lands of a rifled barrel. In terms of pellets it is a numerical term included in a pellet name to indicate a rough approximation of the pellet diameter. Proper style for calibre designations is no decimal point. eg: 177, 2, 20, 25.


Carbine A rifle of short length and light weight.


Chamber The cavity at the breech end of the barrel bore that has been formed to accept and support a specific pellet.


Cheekpiece A raised part of the side of the stock of a shoulder-arm against which the shooter rests his face. Usually associated with a Monte Carlo-type stock. Its purpose is to raise the shooter's eye to the height necessary to maintain the triangle of force.


Chronograph Electronic instrument used for measuring the velocity of a pellet. An important part of a airgunners equipment as it helps to determine the power level of a rifle and keep it with the legal limts. It can also help with tuning an airgun to test for consistency of shots.







Crown Configuration of exit part of the muzzle. The barrel is not merely cut off and left with the sharp edges, but the edge from the inside is rounded towards the outside. The form and angle of this has an influence on accuracy and stability of the pellet. The concentricity of the crown is very important, as variations will negatively influence the pellet as it exits the muzzle. The rifling at the end of the barrel can be slightly relieved, or recessed. The purpose is to protect the forward edge of the rifling from damage, which can ruin accuracy.

Deflection The change in the path of the pellet due to wind or passing through a medium.


Drag The aerodynamic resistance to a pellets flight.


Drift Lateral movement of a pellet away from the line of bore, caused by its rotation on its own axis, and always in the direction of the rifling twist (compensated for by sight adjustment). Also used to describe the influence of wind on a pellets flight path.





Energy Kinetic energy or force carried by a pellet at that point in its trajectory. In common use and popular shooting literature it is expressed in foot-pounds, one ft/lbs being the amount of force required to lift a one-pound weight one foot above the ground. Formula: Energy ( in ft/lbs ) equals pellet weight ( in grains ) multiplied by the velocity ( in feet per second ) squared, divided by 450240 (gravity). Often wrongly equated with killing power, energy is not a reliable gauge of this, as it does not take into account penetration or pellet performance.



Eye Relief The distance that the eye is positioned behind the ocular lens of the telescopic sight. A two-to three-inch distance is average. The shooter adjusts the eye relief to ensure a full field of view. This distance is also necessary to prevent the telescope from striking the shooter face during recoil in some rifles.

Feet Per Second Also referred to as ft/s and some written as FPS, it is a unit of measure for velocity.

Fixed Sights Non-adjustable sights.

Flyer A shot considerably outside a normal group on a target, not representative of the rifles or pellets potential accuracy.

Follow-through The continued mental and physical application of marksmanship fundamentals after each shot has been fired. This is important in air rifles due to the increased barrel time.

Foot Pounds (ft/lbs) Unit of measure for energy, being the amount of energy required to raise one pound in weight one foot above the ground against the normal pull of gravity. Used for pellet kinetic energy.



Free-floating Barrel A barrel that is completely free of contact with the stock. This is critical to accuracy because of barrel harmonics. As the pellet is travelling down the barrel, the barrel is vibrating like a tuning fork. Any contact with the barrel will dampen or modify these vibrations with (usually) a negative impact on shot-group size or point of impact.


Grain Measure of weight applied to pellet. 7,000 grains = 1 pound. 1 gram = 15.43 grains.




Group A cluster of pellet holes made by the same rifle/pellet combination, formed from numerous shots fired at a target using the same point of aim, for checking accuracy. A 5-shot group of 1 inch at your shooting range eg 45 yards (measured from the centres of the two widest spaced holes) is generally regarded as acceptable airgun hunting accuracy. It is a statistical fact that group size will increase with the number of shots fired.

Group Sizes It is the maximum distance between the centres of the two farthest shots in a group. The easiest way to do this is to measure from the outside edge of one pellet hole to the inside edge of the farthest one away. Another method is to measure the distance from outside edge to outside edge of the farthest apart holes, then subtract the pellet hole diameter. ( Note that the pellet hole diameter is often smaller than pellet diameter - check it for yourself! ) This latter method allows recording groups smaller than the pellets diameter itself.


Hammer A component part of the firing mechanism which strikes the firing-pin or transfer bar.



Hold-off A shooting technique used to compensate for pellet trajectory by using a modified point of aim above or below the desired point of impact. Also used to describe the modified point of aim used to compensate for wind or target movement. Also known as "Kentucky Windage."

Hold-over When aiming at a target beyond the ‘zero’ or ‘sighted-in’ range of a particular rifle/pellet combination, holding over is the height one must aim above the target (without making mechanical adjustments to the sight) to drop the pellet onto the target.

Hold-under The modified point of aim used below the target to compensate for a projectile on its upward axis of its trajectory. This is also used when shooting at angles (slopes).





Iron Sights A term that is broadly used to describe metallic sighting instruments, covering common open sights as well as aperture-type receiver sights (as opposed to scope sights).

Kentucky Windage An estimate of the modified point of aim required to compensate for wind or for target movement. Synonymous with hold-off.


Keyhole Elongated hole made in a target by a pellet that is tumbling in flight, hence strikes the target other than point first. Caused by inadequate rotational stabilization of the pellet (usually due to insufficient barrel twist; the twist is "too slow"), deflection of the pellet by objects in the pellets path, beyond the effective range for the rifle, or other factors.

Killing Power Vague term applied to a pellet’s ability to kill quarry quickly with a single shot, assuming adequate pellet placement. Often wrongly equated with pellet energy. Killing power cannot be measured in precise terms, as neither it nor pellet energy take into account factors such as penetration, pellet performance, etc.



Line Of Sight Straight line from the shooter’s eye, along the sights to the point of aim.


Lock A general term referring to the total firing mechanism.

Lock Time The period of time between sear release (when the trigger is pulled) and the fall of the firing pin on valve. No shooter can hold a rifle absolutely steady, and the longer the lock time, the more opportunity there is to disturb the aim during the firing pin’s travel, resulting in accuracy discrepancies.






Mil An angular unit of measurement equal to 1/6400 of a complete revolution (there are 6400 mils in 360 degrees). The mil is used to estimate distance and size based on the mil relation formula: 1 mil equals 1 meter at 1,000 meters. There are 3.375 MOA in 1 mil.


Minute of Angle (MOA)Referred to also as MOA, it is a angular unit of measure used to describe the accuracy potential of rifles, and pellets. One MOA equals 1/60th of a degree ( 21 600 minutes in a circle ) and subtends 1.047 inches at 100 yards, or, for practical purposes, 1" at 100 yards. In hunting terms, a rifle/load which, at 100 yards, can consistently place five consecutive shots in a cluster measuring 1" between the centres of the two outermost holes ( "minute of angle groups" ) is considered extremely accurate. For Benchrest competitions the figure is obviously much less.


Muzzle The end of a gun barrel from which the pellet emerges.


Muzzle brake Device at the muzzle end usually integral with the barrel that uses the emerging gas behind a projectile to reduce recoil.

Muzzle energy Also referred to as ME, is kinetic energy or force carried by a pellet as it exits the muzzle of a rifle.

Muzzle Velocity The speed of a projectile as it leaves the muzzle of the rifle.


Natural Point of Aim The direction that the body/rifle combination is oriented while in a stable, relaxed firing position.



Objective Lens The lens at the front of the telescope, facing the target. It is usually larger in diameter than the ocular lens.


Obturation The sealing of propellant gases within the chamber of the rifle.


Ocular Lens The lens at the rear of the telescope, nearest the shooters eye.

Off-hand position / Off-hand shot A shooting position in which the shooter stands upright and does not rest the rifle or his arms on or against any object.



Open sight Rear sight of traditional “leaf” type with open-topped V-notch or U-notch, as distinct from a scope or aperture ( peep ) sight.




Parallax The apparent movement of the target in relation to the reticle when the shooter moves his eye in relation to the ocular lens. When the target's image is not focused on the same focal plane as the telescope's reticle, parallax is the result. Some rifle telescopes have a field parallax adjustment that makes parallax error an insignificant factor when proper eye relief and stock weld are used.


Pellet Drop Term used to describe the measure of a pellets fall after it crosses the line of sight for the second time, i.e., beyond the zero or sighted-in range, due to the effect of gravity.




Plinking The informal shooting at inanimate objects located at arbitrary or indefinite distances from the firing point.


Point Blank A term especially related to hunting. The distance to which one can shoot at quarry, hitting in the target area, for example the vital ( heart/lung/head ) area, without any holdover. The mid-range trajectory and the pellet drop will both fall within the specified area.

Point Of Aim The point on a target on which the sights are optically aligned when firing.

Point Of Impact The point on which the pellet actually lands. By adjusting the sights, the point of impact can be made to coincide with the point of aim at a preselected distance; hence we say the rifle/sight/pellet combination is “zeroed” or “sighted in” at that range. Abbreviated to POI.

Projectile A pellet in flight. Often wrongly used to mean a pellet per se. A pellet does not become a projectile until it is in flight.


Range The distance between the shooter and the target. Also short for shooting range.

Rangefinder Device for determining range, or for optically measuring ( or estimating ) the direct distance to a target.

Ranging The technique that a shooter uses to compensate for pellet trajectory by using adjustable/ranging telescope.

Rate Of Twist In a barrel, the length over which the rifling grooves make one complete twist ( i.e. the length of the bore used to turn the pellet one full revolution ) e.g. 1:10 or one revolution in 10 inches. Differs from calibre to calibre. Pellet weight must be appropriate to the rate of twist or pellet will not stabilise in flight. The heavier the pellet, thus the longer, the faster the twist rate must be.

Recoil The rearward thrust of a some rifles caused by the propulsion of a projectile in the opposite direction. Refer Newton’s 3rd Law of Physics: for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction. Commonly called “kick”. The amount of recoil felt by the shooter depends on factors such as the weight of the rifle ( which absorbs some of the recoil ), the design of the stock, the shooting position, etc. Incidentally complete analysis based on conservation of momentum would have to include the angular momentum the pellet acquires, which depends on the twist rate and length of the barrel.

Remaining Energy A projectile's energy in foot pounds at a given range.

Reticle / Reticule In telescopic sights, the element which is optically referred to the target. It may consist of straight or tapered cross-hairs (wires in the tube forming a central cross ), dots, or other marks used to determine the point-of-aim, size of, or range to the target. It is also markings in a microscope eyepiece used to establish location or scale. Commonly used to measure rifling.



Rifling Spiral grooves in the bore of a barrel to impart a rotary motion ( spin ) to the pellet to provide it with rotational stability. This will ensure that the pellet flies true with a point-first attitude.. Methods of manufacturing are Button rifling, Cut rifling and Hammer forging.

Scope A shortened form of the word "telescope", meaning a telescopic sighting device for a rifle or, simply "riflescope". While a telescope magnifies an image, a riflescope is made with an integral fire-direction indicator called a reticle which, most often, appears as crossed-hairs or crossed-wires. A riflescope is securely mounted on a rifle and adjusted so that its vertical cross-wire is aligned with the path of the projectile. The horizontal cross wire is then set to coincide with the projectile's point of impact at a specific distance. It magnifies the target and places it and the reticle in the same optical place, facilitating very precise aiming.

Scope Mounts Devices for securing a scope to a rifle, comprising scope rings and bases.

Sight Picture The visual image observed by the shooter when the sights are properly aligned on the point-of-aim.

Sight-in In rifle shooting, the process of getting the pellets point of impact to coincide with the rifle’s point of aim ( or line of sight ) at a preselected distance, by means of sight adjustment. Applies to any given combination of rifle, pellet and sight system.

Stalking The hunter's art of moving unseen into a firing position, engaging his quarry undetected.



Velocity The speed of a pellet, usually measured in feet per second.

Wad Cutter A pellet design which features a sharp shoulder. Designed to cut a clean, round hole in a paper target.

Windage The adjustment on the telescope or iron sights to compensate for horizontal deflection of the pellet.The distance or amount of horizontal correction that a shooter must use to hit his target due to the effects of wind or drift.


X :The power of optical magnification (for example, 10X, 3X-9X).



Zero The range at which the point of aim and the point of impact are one and the same. Verb: To sight in a rifle/scope/pellet combination so that the pellet’s point of impact coincides with the point of aim at a preselected distance. Called this because at that distance, zero hold-over is required when aiming.


( compiled by sean3513)




Why is a .410 shotgun a calibre and not a gauge or bore ??



The .410 calibre

By Sean3513




Also known as the “12mm” and the “36 gauge” (but actually 10.41mm or 48 gauge ?)

Always a puzzling question as to why it’s a calibre and not a gauge or bore.

Hopefully this may shed some light on the situation.


The 36gauge was an "artificial" denomination of a .410 bore calibre

Nobody to this date has come up with a very precise answer, even the president of CIP (the European ruling committee on arms and ammunition).


All the official documents from European Proof houses before 1904 do not mention .410bore calibre.

In Great Britain, in an 1855 and some previous documents, official gauges went from 1 (1.669") to 50gauge (.453").

In a later (1868) document, they increased the list to go from A gauge (2.000") to 50 gauge(.453”)

In all documents, 36gauge reported a .506" diameter. And interestingly 48 gauge was .410”.

The gauges where determined with the number of lead balls of that diameter which made a British pound.

France, in 1810, tried to get away from the British system and they managed to keep two systems: one was similar to the British (except the French pound was different) and determined gauges fairly similar in diameter to the British system;

the other, called the bore system, was similar, but used the kilogram (for example a 32 bore was very similar to a 12 gauge).

In 1868, they killed the bore system and tried to rationalise the dimensions. They still based the determination of the gauge on the number of lead balls made with a French pound, but they decided to adjust the diameters to have 0.2mm steps between gauges.

This is probably were the .410 was born (even though it was not called so; officially it was called a 12mm):

In fact, the French proof house decided that all the guns smaller than 10.6mm (roughly .410") had to be tested for pressure in a different way than the bigger ones. So, .410 became the divider between serious guns and playthings.

In Germany in the 1800's there is no mention of any gauge smaller than 32 (and, by the way, they used several different "German" pounds, depending where the gun was manufactured)

Austria had a system similar to the English, from 4 to 50 gauge. There was a 36 gauge with diameter 12.4mm (but was, different from the French and English 32...)

Italy was a mess: depending on who was the invader (Austria ,France or Spain) they changed the system accordingly.

The presence of more than 30 weight systems in Italy confused the situation. Basically, in the 1800's there was no two guns alike in the entire European continent...

luckily the European gunsmiths were pretty good in making custom made balls after measuring the gun barrel. Things started to change in the 1900's, probably because of the need for having standard arms and ammunitions when assembling armies of different countries.


The first official reference to .410 bore calibre is in a 1904 document by the Royal British proof house; the same document has a 36gauge (with the "correct" .506 in diameter).

CIP met for the first time in 1914 and managed to get an agreement on the nominal diameter of calibres from 12 to 28gauge (12, 14, 16, 20, 24 and 28). There was still some resistance on 4 and 8 gauge and other bigger calibres (up to 32 mm, which was an Italian 1 gauge), and French and British 8 gauge and 4 gauge stayed until the 40's, along with the official European 4 and 8 gauge. In the 20's and 30's 14 gauge disappeared and 32 re-appeared.

All the other smaller calibres (with the exception of .410 bore) disappeared completely.

Sometime in the 20's, someone at the CIP probably thought of making an aesthetically pleasant set up...since they had 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32, why not call the next smaller (and only remaining) calibre 36 (step’s of 4).

Later they reverted to using the correct name i.e .410, but the industry had already started using the two names.

There are some 1920's catalouges from Fiocchi and Dynamit Nobel using both 36 and .410 for the same shell.

In the 1961, CIP confirmed .410 as the only correct name, but in 1969 added 36 in parenthesis on the dimensional tables.

Basically, they were acknowledging the situation.

The confusion never died, because the French kept calling the 32 gauge 14mm, the .410bore 12mm and they added the .360, calling it 9mm (later to become a rim fire.)

Italy and other European countries used 36 gauge for the shorter .410 (2 and 2 1/2" long) and .410 for the 3" long, also called 36 Magnum.

There is no real technical explanation behind it and it is thought to be the result of trying to get an agreement between several countries and several hundreds arms and ammunition producers, all of them with their own history and reasons.

The fact is that 36 gauge and .410 bore now refer to the same shell.

Unless anyone knows different ????





knife law


The Criminal Justice Act (1988) says that you may carry a knife with a blade length of 3.0" or less so long as it is capable of folding. That means no fixed blade knives. But, think about it - a knife has no place at a football match, in a pub, nightclub or school and becomes an offensive weapon in these circumstances in just the same way as a screwdriver, or any other innanimate tool.


But I NEED a Bigger Knife ...

If you wish to carry a larger knife then you must have 'reasonable cause'. That means that you must be able to prove that you had a genuine reason for carrying the knife.


You may carry a larger cutting tool if it is associated with your work (for instance a chef may carry a 9.0" butchers knife roll to and from work), or if it is associated with your sport, (for instance a fisherman may carry a 6.0" fillet knife, or a hunter may carry a 6.0" fixed blade hunting knife).


Don't forget it's there though. If you stop off in Tesco's for a can of beans on your way home take the knife off of your belt and lock it in your glove box, or your local Bobby will be unimpressed at your excuses. When transporting a knife by car keep it locked away in the glove box or securely stored in the boot of the vehicle. Do not slip it into the door side-pocket, under your seat or in a centre console, this is a dangerous practice, and if stopped by the Police this gives the impression of keeping the knife close to hand.


Don't Give The Police A Hard Time ...

Ensure that you comply fully with the law. The Police take breaches of knife law very seriously, you really don't want to be caught on the wrong side, it's just not worth it.


link below for 1997 knives act





hope this helps






Hunting permission letter


(please copy and paste then edit to suit your requirments)


your name and address


Date 12 / 04 / 2010

Dear Sir/Madam

First of all, I would like to take this chance to thank you for taking the time to read this letter.

I’m writing to enquire whether there is an opportunity for vermin control on your land free of charge

My name is G BLOGGS I am 00 years old, married with two children and live in your location.

I have been shooting for 5 years now and enjoy the hobby very much. Along with the added bonus of Helping

The land owner/farmer by controlling vermin such as.


Pigeons, rooks, crows, rabbits, rats, & squirrels.


With this in mind, I feel I can be of some assistance to you, should you offer me permission to shoot for Vermin on

Your land. All property, borders and Boundaries will be respected. I can also be your eyes & ears

when I am on your land – I can keep a watch for any fly tipping of rubbish

Or people trespassing on your land and inform you directly of any occurrences I have a serious out look

And respect when using air rifles and I believe the following points illustrate this well



Take chances when shooting-safety of others and my self is always utmost of importance to me

Which is why I will undertake to arrange with you in advance when and were I can shoot.



Respect the wishes of the land owner and obey any rules or restrictions he/she may lay down.

. I am a current member of the B.A.S.C {British Association for Shooting & Conversation}

And always carry my membership I.D card and proof of shooting insurance with me whenever on vermin Control

I enclose a copy of liability insurance


If you grant me permission to shoot on your land,

I would respectfully ask it would be in writing form please-please could you fill in and return the attached

Permission form. I enclose a stamped, address envelope for this purpose


Please do not hesitate to contact me on my mobile telephone: if you require any more Information.

Once again, many thanks

Yours sincerely

Mr g bloggs


Grant Of Permission Date 23 / 01 / 20

To Shoot For Pest & Vermin Control

Day / Night

On Private land

This is to confirm that


has, in the written form of this notice, hereby signed authorised by me, been granted permission to shoot for

pest and vermin on land situated at:



Using: *Air Rifle,


By myself:


Mr/ Mrs………………………….



Being the rightful and legal *owner/*agent/*tenant of the above-mentioned land.

I am satisfied for this permission to:


(A) *Last until revoked by me.




(B) *expire on:

I Understand that your name here!. When on my land, will adhere to any rules or restrictions given by me


Signed: …………………….

Dated: ………………………

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I need some suggestions on a first rifle i'm new to hunting only shot an air rifle twice once while i was camping with scouts and my friends one and i need some advice on a first rifle suggestions would be great thanks

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